Effects of Musical Mnemonics on the Division Skills of Students with Math Difficulties


    Matthias Grünke , Nicole Müllerke , Jennifer Karnes , Ellen L Duchaine , Anne Barwasser





How to Cite

Grünke, M., Müllerke, N., Karnes, J., Duchaine, E. L., & Barwasser, A. (2023). Effects of Musical Mnemonics on the Division Skills of Students with Math Difficulties. International Journal of Special Education, 38(2), 102–112. https://doi.org/10.52291/ijse.2023.38.26


The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of musical mnemonics in improving division skills among sixth-grade students with severe math difficulties. A multiple-baseline design (AB) was implemented, consisting of 3-4 baseline sessions followed by 9-12 intervention sessions. The findings reveal that the training produced an immediate and notable impact on the participants' capacity to solve division problems involving 7s and 9s, which were particularly challenging for them prior to the treatment. All four student participants expressed highly positive evaluations of the strategy instruction. While this research is subject to certain limitations, it serves as a valuable option to assist students struggling in math during the early stages of secondary education, to prevent them from falling behind in the critical area of division. Further research is warranted to explore the generalizability of these findings and to address the limitations encountered in this study.


mnemonics, struggling math students, single-case research, secondary school, division


IJSE Vol 38, No: 2, 2023

Volume 38, Number: 2, Year 2023 of International Journal of Special Education