Early Indicators of Good Reading Skill: Grade 3 Learners in Focus, Ethiopia


    Berhanu Dendena , Ramodungoane Tabane





How to Cite

Dendena, B., & Tabane, R. (2023). Early Indicators of Good Reading Skill: Grade 3 Learners in Focus, Ethiopia. International Journal of Special Education, 38(1), 102–117. https://doi.org/10.52291/ijse.2023.38.10


The article presents early indicators of good reading skills for Grade 3 learners. It employed an explanatory sequential mixed methods design by which quantitative data collection and analysis occurred first, followed by qualitative data collection and analysis. The intention of using this design was that qualitative data would explain and contextualize the quantitative findings. The quantitative part constitutes a non-equivalent control group design in a quasi-experimental approach. It used naturally occurring intact groups that already existed before and after a quasi-experimental treatment occurred to make comparisons between groups. It involved 1,325 Grade 3 learners selected by convenient sampling technique from 10 primary schools. It used a reading achievement test for quantitative data collection in both groups after and before the intervention. It analyzed quantitative data with the help of a t-test and ANCOVA. Under the qualitative part, a multiple case study design was employed via interviews and observation of learners, teachers, and parents. Qualitative data were analyzed thematically. The findings indicated that there was an association between reading achievement and learners’ linguistics skills, schema, motivation, and reading self-efficacy. Therefore, teachers are advised to emphasize early indicators of reading skills in order to make Grade 3 learners more beneficiaries.


Linguistics skills, Motivation, Reading self-efficacy, Reading skill, Schema


IJSE Vol 38, No: 1, 2023

Volume 38, Number: 1, Year 2023 of International Journal of Special Education