Predictors of Academic Self-Efficacy of University Students: Grades, Learning Disabilities and ADHD


    Daniela Cvitkovic , Svjetlana Salkicevic Pisonic , Ina Radošević




How to Cite

Cvitkovic, D., Salkicevic Pisonic, S., & Radošević, I. (2024). Predictors of Academic Self-Efficacy of University Students: Grades, Learning Disabilities and ADHD. International Journal of Special Education, 39(1), 44–52.


Academic self-efficacy (ASE) is a key concept for academic success as individuals with high ASE are, among other things, ambitious, see problems as challenges, focus on solving tasks, therefore have higher class participation and persevere in difficult tasks. Learning disabilities (LD) and ADHD have been found to be related to academic success, specifically the aspect of taking tests and demonstrating knowledge. Studies of ASE in LD and ADHD students have shown it to be lower in those populations. Most research has focused on ASE as a precursor to academic success. Therefore, we wanted to investigate the opposite, namely how prior academic experiences predict ASE. 287 Croatian students, fifty-three of whom had LD and/or ADHD, participated in the online study. ASE in the learning process and in achieving the desired learning outcomes was lower in the LD/ADHD group. Regression analysis showed that failing an exam, university and middle school grades were significant predictors for both ASE facets, with LD/ADHD diagnosis being
a significant predictor only for ASE in achieving the desired learning outcome. Previous negative experiences with testing in the LD/ADHD group and overall relatively recent academic experience have a significant role in students’ ASE. Given the importance of academic self-efficacy, the practical implications of these findings point to the importance of supporting students with LD and ADHD during their education.


Academic Self-efficacy, Learning Disabilities, ADHD, Grades


IJSE, 38(1), 2024