A review of evidence based practices to support students with oppositional defiant disorder in classroom settings


    Conor Barker , Jenn de Lugt





How to Cite

Barker, C., & de Lugt, J. (2022). A review of evidence based practices to support students with oppositional defiant disorder in classroom settings. International Journal of Special Education (IJSE), 37(1). https://doi.org/10.52291/ijse.2022.37.29


The purpose of this review and synthesis of empirical research was to investigate available evidence-based interventions for use with students with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) in general classroom settings. ODD is a specific disorder characterised by angry/irritable mood, argumentative/defiant behavior, and vindictiveness. Often in the literature however, it is categorized broadly under emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) with sometimes non-related disorders.  This review of 26 articles focused on interventions for students whose behaviors were characteristic of ODD. While much of the research regarding the treatment of ODD consists of clinical strategies (e.g., family therapy, exercise programs, and community supports), it is essential that teachers have strategies to support students with ODD in inclusive general education classroom settings. Three main types of interventions emerged from this review: Functional behaviour analysis, group contingency, and self-monitoring strategies. A number of other non-categorical strategies are also presented and discussed. Percentages of nonoverlapping data (PND) were calculated to explore the effect of these interventions in improving adaptive behavior, and in decreasing disruptive behavior. Directions for future research into how teachers can support students with ODD in their classrooms, are recommended.


oppositional defiant disorder, classroom interventions, inclusive education, behavioural interventions, emotional and behavioural disorders

Author Biographies

Conor Barker, St. Francis Xavier University

Dr. Conor Barker (Assistant Professor, St. Francis Xavier University) is a teacher, psychologist, and scholar of inclusive education and educational psychology. Dr. Barker has over 15 years of experience in inclusive education as an educational assistant, classroom teacher, special programs teacher, and school psychologist.  Dr. Barker’s research area focuses on inclusive practices in rural and minority language contexts, and the development of clinical competency and creative practice within school psychology.

Jenn de Lugt, University of Regina

Jenn de Lugt (Associate Professor, University of Regina, Saskatchewan) teaches in inclusive education and is particularly interested in research related to supporting students with emotional and behavioral challenges in inclusive classrooms. She is currently investigating ways in which educative mental health programs for schools can foster open dialogue, reduce stigma, and enhance understanding about mental health concerns for children and youth.


IJSE Vol 37, No: 1, 2022

Volume 37, Number: 1, Year 2022 of International Journal of Special Education